The Hindu Succession Act 1956 does not discriminate between Hindu men and Hindu women regarding any form of succession. This method is based on natural affection and scientific approach. It has been built by the Parliament of India on the basis of social harmony and equality. Under this Act, there is a separate scientific way of dividing the property of Hindu man in succession which is described under section 8 of this act.
Under the Hindu Succession Act 1956, the way a man is given rights in relation to succession to property. Similarly, if a Hindu woman is an intestate deceased, then in such a situation the rules of succession of her property have been determined under Section 15 of this Act and the order of heirs of the property of Hindu woman is mentioned under Section 16.
Section 15 of Hindu Succession Act, 1956
This is the second most important section of this Act. Under this section simple rules regarding succession of Hindu women are mentioned. After the passage of the Hindu Succession Act 1956, a Hindu woman has three types of assets.
- Property received in succession from father or mother
- Property received in succession from husband or father-in-law
- All other types of property – as is the general rule, any Hindu person shall inherit the property received by him in succession and the property acquired by him.
He can devise his property anywhere. No law or rule prevents a person from making any will in relation to his property. Any Hindu man or woman can inherit his property anywhere and the offspring of a Hindu man cannot claim that he is entitled to inherit his property because any Hindu man or woman has absolute right. That he will devise his property anywhere. But if the Hindu man or woman does not die in respect of his property except by a will then the provisions of the Hindu Succession Act 1956 apply. Under these provisions separate rules have been prescribed for male and separate rules have been prescribed for Hindu woman. Under Section 15 of the Succession Act 1956, the rules for the right to property of a Hindu woman are described.
Under Section 30 of this Act, any Hindu woman can bequeath her property anywhere but she does not leave any will, then in such a situation, according to section 15, the succession of her property is decided. According to Section 15 of the Hindu Succession Act 1956, in the event of death of a Hindu woman, her property is devolved to the following persons-
1) Son, daughter and husband
2) Husband’s heirs
3) Mother and father
4) To the heirs of the father
5) The order of succession of the property of any Hindu woman to the heirs of the mother is the same as the order of succession to the property of a Hindu male.
The property is first devolved to son, daughter and husband. If the dying Hindu woman does not have a son, daughter and husband, in such a situation the property is devolved to the heirs of the husband. If the husband’s heir is also not available, then the property of the dying Hindu woman is devolved to her mother and father. If the mother and father are also not available, then the fourth heir is the heir to the father. If the father does not have an heir, in such a situation the fifth heir is the heir of the mother.
Certain features under this section, if any property is inherited by a Hindu woman from her parents, in the absence of the son or daughter of the deceased, the above heirs will be devolved to the heirs of the father and not to the order. Similarly, property received from husband or father-in-law will be devolved to the heirs of the husband if there is no son or daughter of the deceased. In this section, an attempt has been made to judge the property from which people get the property. The first succession is that of the son and daughters. If the son and daughter are not available, in such a situation, the property received in succession is devolved to those people from where that property is received by a Hindu woman.
For example, a Hindu woman has received a piece of land in succession from her father-in-law, now no child of this Hindu woman is available and there is also no objection to the child, in such a situation, the property obtained from the father-in-law does not belong to the husband. In the event of in-laws heirs will be devolved.
In the event of a Hindu woman receiving the property from the husband, the heirs of the husband will be devolved.
In the event of inheritance from her father, the heirs of the father will be devolved, but if a property is acquired by a dying Hindu woman herself, the rule for her property in such a situation would be that first of all the property. Succession will be devolved. After that, the second succession will be devolved, followed by the third answer will be devolved to the officers. The first heirs exclude the second heirs.
Under this Act, a Hindu woman’s son and daughters mean the son and daughter received from her womb and the sons and daughters adopted by her husband. If a Hindu woman has 2 sons and their two fathers are different, in such a situation, both her sons will get the property of the Hindu woman. This clause does not apply in such a situation if her step-son means that if her husband has given birth to a son or daughter from another woman. Under the Hindu Adoption Act, when a husband or wife accepts an adoption, the wife also agrees in such a situation, if a Hindu man has adopted a son, then that adopted son will have the same inheritance in the property of the Hindu woman. Who has a son born from his womb.
In the case of Laxman Singh v. Krupa Singh AIR 1986 Supreme Court 1616, it has been pointed out that as far as the step-son is concerned, he does not fall under the extension of Section 15 (1) (a). In the case of Kampo Bai v. Deviram 1982 Revenue Decision 14 Madhya Pradesh, it has been said that under section (a) of section 15 (1), the reference to the daughters and daughters of the daughters is from their own daughters. Her husband’s other wife’s sons and daughters are not included. Step sons will not come under the subdivision and step daughters will also not come.
The heir of a Hindu woman is firstly her sons, daughters and husbands but here the situation of husband is entangled. That is, sub-section 2 of section 15 provides that if a Hindu woman has inherited the property and has no son or daughter, then in such a situation and the property is devolved to the heirs of the same person. Property received in succession. For example if a woman inherits any property from the father in succession. The woman has no children and does not adopt any adoptions and dies intestate. Now in such a situation, the inheritance which she received will be devolved to the heirs of her father and not to her husband. It simply means that the heirs of the party from whom the property is received in succession will be devolved only.
In Radhika Mehta v. Anurag Mehta 1994 (5) Supreme Court 761 it is stated that if the intestate Hindu woman had inherited the property from her mother and maternal grandfather, then the daughter of the deceased would inherit it and her husband in section 15 (2 ) Shall not acquire property in succession as per the provision of (a). According to the nature of this section, the husband will not inherit the property left by his wife in the condition where his wife held the property from her father. The husband will inherit the property in the same circumstances in which the property was either given by him to the wife or was earned by the wife herself.
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